Adverbs of Time


Adverbs of time later is usually placed at the end or beginning of a sentence.

I will call you later.

Later, we went to the zoo.

It can also be placed after the main verb and usually has a function of comparative.

Our mail arrived later than usual.


YET is primarily used in negative and interrogative sentences. It is normally placed at the end of a sentence.

I haven’t had my breakfast yet.

Daren hasn’t gone to the dentist’s yet.

Have you finished your homework yet?

Have they decided about the wedding date yet?

YET can also be used in positive sentences to talk about a future possibility.

We might yet be able make a deal with them.

Things could yet improve in the company.


The adverb STILL is used to describe something that is happening continuously.

Tom is still thinking about moving to Corsica.

They are still not sure whether to continue with the project.

It can also be used with the modal verbs may, might, can, and could to describe something that was a possibility in the past, and which could possibly happen in the future.

We can still catch the 5.15 train.

I could still make it up to you.


We use FOR & SINCE when we talk about how long something happens.

We use FOR  with a time phrase that specifies a length of time.

I have been waiting for two hours.

Lorna has been studying English for five years.

We have lived here for 20 years.

We use SINCE with a specific point in time.

I haven’t eaten anything since 8 o’clock.

Bill has put on weight since he started working in that bakery.

They have been married since 2012.




Also, as well or too?

Also, as well and too are adverbs that have a similar meaning but they do not go in the same position in a sentence.

Also, as well and too mean ‘in addition’.


Also is more commonly used in writing than in speaking. Unlike as well and too, also can be placed in different positions in a sentence.

We use also for emphasis:

Anette is very intelligent. Also, she is talented in music.

Jane is not only fond of reading, she also writes well.

We use also between the subject and main verb, or after the modal or auxiliary verb. In this position, the meaning of also connects to the previous clause:

I can play football but I can also play basketball.

She works very hard but she also  exercises twice a week.

In end position, also normally connects two phrases. We use as well and too instead of also in end position:

She emailed him but he didn’t reply. He didn’t answer the phone also. (or he didn’t answer the phone too or …answer the phone as well.)

As well

As well is much more common in spoken than in written English.

As a rule, as well comes at the end of the sentence:

I speak English and I can speak French as well.

I’ll have a coffee and I’ll have a cupcake as well.


We usually put too at the end of the sentence:

Tom is tired. He’s hungry, too.

Too is especially common in responses to fixed expressions such as giving good wishes, etc:

A: Have a good time!

B: You too!

Have and Have Got

Have got and have mean the same but have got is more informal. Look at these sentences:

I’ve got some money in my wallet.    or    I have some money in my wallet. (more formal)

Tom hasn’t got a dog     or    Tom doesn’t have a dog. (more formal)

  • We normally use have (got) to talk about possession, relationships, illnesses, etc. In these contexts, it is not used in the continuous form:

They have a new house   or   They’ve got a new house. Not: They are having a new house

Have you got any brothers or sisters?     or      Do you have any brothers or sisters?

I’ve got a headache.    or    I have a headache.

  • For the past we use had (without got)

We had a great time last night.

I had a red bicycle when I was little.

  • In past interrogative and negative sentences we use did and did not:

Did you have a mobile phone when you  were little?

I didn’t have blond hair when I was younger. I’m dying it.

  • We use have in numerous collocations:

Have breakfast/lunch/dinner

Have a shower/bath

Have a good/bad time

Have  a break/rest/nap/party, etc.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Look at this sentence:

They say he is a good man.

Now look at its impersonal passive construction:

It is said that he is a good man.

We can state the same using a personal passive construction:

He is said to be a good man.

You can use these structures with a number of other verbs like: believed, expected, known, thought, etc. 

It is believed that the weather will change soon.

They are expected to come at noon.

 The strike is expected to end soon.

It is known that Columbus discovered America.

It is thought that the thieves got in through the window.



Make personal and impersonal passive constructions with this sentences:

  1. The company makes a lot of profit.
  2. The town was hit by an earthquake.
  3. John knows Maths well.
  4. Brenda speaks three languages.
  5. He is very considerate.


(Answer key: 1) It is said that the company makes a lot of profit / The company is said to make a lot of profit. 2) It was reported that the town was hit by an earthquake / The town was reported to be hit by an earthquake. 3) It is thought that John knows Maths well / John is thought to know Maths well. 4) It is known that Brenda speaks three languages / Brenda is known to speak three languages 5) It is believed that he’s very considerate / He is believed to be very considerate)








The word punctuation comes from a Latin word meaning “inserting pauses in writing.”

A period (.) ends a sentence.

A comma (,) creates a pause in the text. There is more to the use of a comma, but if you keep to this simple definition for now, it will get you a long way.

An exclamation mark (!) shows strong emotion or shouting, but don’t overuse it. Use it only when you really need to!

A question mark (?) turns a sentence into a question.

A colon (:) is used to list out a number of things in a sentence.

Four people were queuing in front of the theatre: William, Alec, Tom, and Sue.

It can also be used to give more information, as long as the part after the colon can act as a sentence on its own:

I’m looking for a copy of this book: one of my friends wants to read it.

You can also use colons to greet someone in a formal business letter:

Dear Mr. Roberts:

A semicolon (;) makes two sentences into one; two separate thoughts mashed into one!

Ellipses(…) comes from a Latin word meaning “to leave out.” and shows that some text has been removed.

“Mary ate all the pancakes” can be changed to “Mary ate… the pancakes.”

Ellipses are also handy to just… create a pause… in the text…as if words are going unspoken.

Ellipses are always three periods.

Parentheses ( )come from a Latin word meaning “putting beside.”  They are used to give a bit more information about something, or to make a remark about something.

Bill came to the meeting on time (this was a first).

Joanna (who had hit her head earlier that evening) did not appear at the party.

Quotation marks (“ ”) are used primarily to show that someone is speaking.

“Hello,” said Gary, “how are you?”

You can also use them to be ironic:

The “cure” caused him to get very ill.

Use quotes (or italics) for titles of books, magazines, new technical words, special or unusual words, and so on:

The book “Mansfield Park” is one of the great novels by Jane Austen.

If a quote is inside a quote, use a single quotation mark:

“He told me ‘your hat is funny’ and I laughed,” said Tom.

Punctuation marks go inside the quotes:

“What’s going on, Mildred?” asked Tom.

“Nothing important,” said Mildred.

A hyphen (-) is different than a dash. A hyphen is short. A dash is longer. Each do different things.

Use a hyphen to create compound words, joining two words to make a new one:



Use a hyphen for numbers that do not show a range of numbers. Use hyphens on things like phone or bank account numbers:


You can use hyphenated word to make things clearer to the reader by using a hyphen to create an adjective:

He created some computer-generated art.

They lived in a well-organized community.

En-dash (–) is a bit longer than a hyphen (it’s called “en” because it is about the same size as the letter “n” in older printing machines).

En-dash means “through.” So you would use it for ranges of things:


pages 12–15

An en-dash is used to replace a comma or parentheses:

He went to the store – the big store downtown – to get what he wanted.

The Phrase “Another One”

  • We use the phrase “another one” to mention one more thing of the same kind.

I really liked the film. Let’s watch another one.

I passed the test and I’ll never have to pass another one because I graduated.

  • We can use the phrase “another one” for a different thing of the same kind.

-I don’t like this dress. – You can exchange it for another one.

  • We don’t use the phrase “another one” with a noun.

I’d like another one cup of tea.