Relative Pronouns

Most commonly used relative pronouns are whowhichthatwhose, when and where.

We normally use who for people and some pet animals and which for things.

We can use that instead of who or which.

The woman who (that) gave me the letter.

She gave me the letter which (that) was red.

This is the computer which (that) costs a lot of money.

Is this the person who (that) stole your purse?

We use whose as the possessive form of who:

This is the man whose house we bought.

Jane married a man whose family adore her.

We use when to introduce time:

There is a time when everyone needs to rest.

5 o’clock is the time when we usually have tea.

We use where for place:

I know a place where they serve excellent fish and chips.

This is the town where I used to live.

Quiz: Relative Pronouns


6 Phrasal Verbs with “Ask”

ASK FOR – to request to see or speak to someone.
Bob asked for you while you were at work.

ASK AFTER SOMEBODY – ask about someone’s health.
Milly asked after your dad.

ASK AROUND – to ask different people in order to get information.
They asked around and eventually someone showed them the way.

ASK SOMEBODY IN – to invite somebody inside.
Sheila asked David in for a coffee.

ASK SOMEBODY OUT – invite somebody on a date.
I’d like to ask Jane out. What do you think?

ASK ABOUT – ask how somebody is doing.
Biology teacher asked about you the other day.

How to Use “So” and “Such” Correctly

So and such are used to strengthen the meaning of adjectives.

So is used before an adjective without a noun.

For example:

The film was so boring.

My neighbors are so loud.

Such is used before an adjective that comes with a noun.

For example:

It is such a lovely day today.

This water pipe is such a nuisance.

So and such are also used with THAT-clause.

For example:

The bride was so beautiful that I couldn’t believe it.

That dress was such a bargain that I had to buy it.

Collocations about BOOKS

Be absorbed in a book – be totally focused on reading.
Ex: Derek didn’t hear me because he was absorbed in a book.

Bedtime reading – reading in bed.
Ex: Would you recommend horror stories for bedtime reading?

Compulsive reading – so interesting that you can’t stop reading.
Ex: More and more people are indulging in compulsive reading.

Light reading – something you read easily.
Ex: Love novels are light reading.

Skim through a book – not read thoroughly.
Ex: I skimmed through a detective story you gave me and decided to take it on holiday, it seems interesting.

Order of Adverbs

An adverb is a word that gives more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or even an entire sentence. It can be one word or an adverbial phrase:

Emma loved her son deeply.

Emma loved her son with all her heart.

They describe:

  • how an action is done (adverbs of manner):

She pushed him gently.

  • Where (adverbs of place):

We saw him at the cinema.

  • and when (adverbs of time):

She met him at 7 o’clock.

If there is more than one adverb, they usually go like this:


The New York Knicks played marvellously in Boston last night.

We were walking in the park in the afternoon.

Sometimes we place the adverb at the beginning of the sentence before the subject:

Yesterday, it was raining all day.

Sometimes, I like to have my tea in the evening.

Collocations with the Verb “Hope”

Here are some collocations with the verb “hope” to help you adopt natural English expressions as well as build up your vocabulary:

Real / sincere hope

It is my sincere hope their marriage will be a happy one.

High hopes

High hopes of his parents were not realized.

False hope

Don’t give him false hope.

Early hopes

His early hopes of becoming a doctor became true.

Be full of hopes (hopeful)

They were full of hope they’d get the tickets.

Hope for the best

I had the car fixed. Now we can hope for the best.

Cherish hope

Mary cherished the hope David would propose to her.

Keep alive the hope

They kept their hope of moving abroad alive.

Give up hope

He gave up his hopes of becoming a pilot.

Every hope

We have every hope of finishing the project this year.

Hope in hell

You haven’t got a hope in hell of getting that job.

Hopes and dreams

She told me all about her hopes and dreams.