Across vs Over vs Through

ACROSS and OVER are both prepositions and adverbs. They are in most cases interchangeable.

Look at these sentences:

They had to go across the river to get to their house.

We walked over the bridge in the misty morning.

However, when the meaning is ‘from side to side’, ACROSS is preferred:

I ran across the street.

Juliana folded her arms across her chest.

When moving from one side to another in a surrounding environment, across is replaced by THROUGH:

I made my way through the bushes.

The Red Riding Hood went through the woods to get to her grandma’s house.

Don’t use THROUGH when talking about periods of time. In these cases, OVER is preferred.

I haven’t seen Tom much over the last three years.

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Any Longer vs Any More vs No Longer

Any longer and any more (or anymore) are synonyms.

When we use any longer or any more, we need to use don’t/doesn’t because the adverbs express a negative relationship with time. It is also important that we put them at the end of the sentence.

However, when we use no longer, it comes between the subject and the verb. Unlike any longer and any more, it is used in positive sentences because it makes the sentence negative.

Examples:

I don’t drink coffee any longer.

I don’t drink coffee anymore.

I no longer drink coffee.

Especially and Specially

 Especially and specially are adverbs.

Especially means more than usual, most of all, in particular.

Judith likes chocolate, especially the dark one.

I like tea, especially the green tea.

He’s usually tired in the evening, but he was especially tired this evening.

Specially is used to talk about particular purpose or way of something.

This dress was specially tailored for Jane.

They ordered boots specially for her.

The pigs are specially trained to locate the truffles.

Mistaken Words Like and As

There is much confusion about these two words because they are similar in meaning. Here are some important differences between them:

LIKE is used:

  • to say what something or someone looks / is like.

Peter’s girl-friend looks like Annie Lennox.

Your doorbell sounds like a siren.

The soup smells like fish.

  • with noun / pronoun / gerund.

I look like my mum.

The balloon ride was like flying.

AS is used:

  • to describe someone’s job / role:

He had worked as a waiter before college.

As your teacher, I am proud of you.

  • in expressions: as…as, such as…, the same as…

Jane ran as fast as she could.

Brian visited many Mediterranean countries such as Italy, France, and Greece.

Bring or Take?

The verbs bring and take are often mistaken because they both describe the movement from one location to another.

The main difference is that bring describes movement toward someone or something:

I’ll bring some tea.

Pam brought a friend to the party.

We should bring a camera to the picnic with us.

On the other hand, take describes movement away from someone or something:

Take the empty cups back to the kitchen.

Take the rubbish to the bin.

I’ll take the dog out for a walk.

Good & Well

The main difference between good and well is:

Good is an adjective and well is an adverb.

Sarah paints well.

Jim is a good painter.

Things become confusing after linking verbs; we use good after linking verbs such as: be, taste, sound, smell, look, seem and feel if we want to describe the subject, not the action of the verb:

The film wasn’t good at all.

This dish smells good to me.

I feel good today.

We use well after the linking verbs: be, feel, look and seem if we want to use the adjective form of well meaning ’healthy’:

Jim feels well enough to leave the hospital.  

Fiona was well yesterday, but she feels sick today.