Also, as well or too?

Also, as well and too are adverbs that have a similar meaning but they do not go in the same position in a sentence.

Also, as well and too mean ‘in addition’.

Also

Also is more commonly used in writing than in speaking. Unlike as well and too, also can be placed in different positions in a sentence.

We use also for emphasis:

Anette is very intelligent. Also, she is talented in music.

Jane is not only fond of reading, she also writes well.

We use also between the subject and main verb, or after the modal or auxiliary verb. In this position, the meaning of also connects to the previous clause:

I can play football but I can also play basketball.

She works very hard but she also  exercises twice a week.

In end position, also normally connects two phrases. We use as well and too instead of also in end position:

She emailed him but he didn’t reply. He didn’t answer the phone also. (or he didn’t answer the phone too or …answer the phone as well.)

As well

As well is much more common in spoken than in written English.

As a rule, as well comes at the end of the sentence:

I speak English and I can speak French as well.

I’ll have a coffee and I’ll have a cupcake as well.

Too

We usually put too at the end of the sentence:

Tom is tired. He’s hungry, too.

Too is especially common in responses to fixed expressions such as giving good wishes, etc:

A: Have a good time!

B: You too!

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Have and Have Got

Have got and have mean the same but have got is more informal. Look at these sentences:

I’ve got some money in my wallet.    or    I have some money in my wallet. (more formal)

Tom hasn’t got a dog     or    Tom doesn’t have a dog. (more formal)

  • We normally use have (got) to talk about possession, relationships, illnesses, etc. In these contexts, it is not used in the continuous form:

They have a new house   or   They’ve got a new house. Not: They are having a new house

Have you got any brothers or sisters?     or      Do you have any brothers or sisters?

I’ve got a headache.    or    I have a headache.

  • For the past we use had (without got)

We had a great time last night.

I had a red bicycle when I was little.

  • In past interrogative and negative sentences we use did and did not:

Did you have a mobile phone when you  were little?

I didn’t have blond hair when I was younger. I’m dying it.

  • We use have in numerous collocations:

Have breakfast/lunch/dinner

Have a shower/bath

Have a good/bad time

Have  a break/rest/nap/party, etc.

Restaurant Collocations

 

It’s a holiday season. Whether you’re spending your holiday in a fancy hotel or just want to take your girl-friend to a restaurant for a meal, here is some useful vocabulary to help you out:

Could we see the menu/drinks menu, please?

Could we have a bottle of sparkling/still mineral water, please?

The bread is stale. Could we have some fresh, please?

May I take your order?

What are you going to order for your first/main course?

The chocolate cake looks too heavy. Could we have a light dessert?

I would like a second helping of this delicious dish.

I’m not hungry. We could grab a bite to eat and go to the swimming pool.

We’ll have a bottle of house wine, please.

We’ll have a bottle of red/white dry/sweet wine.

It’s good that we made a reservation earlier. The restaurant is fully booked.

Do you have a table free for four people?

Are there any vegetarian dishes on the menu?

I ordered my steak well-done but they served it rare/medium.

Shall I ask for the bill?/ Could I have the bill, please?

Enjoy your meal!

Latin Abbreviations in English

I’m sure most of you are familiar with Latin abbreviations use in English. There are many of them but I’ll try to explain most frequently used ones.

e.g. (exampli gratia)

We use “e.g.” for giving specific examples.

Ex:  I feel like eating something sweet, e.g. ice cream.

i.e. (id est)

This abbreviation is used to explain something clearer.

Ex:  Schools usually don’t work in the summertime, i.e. in July and August.

P.S. (post scriptum)

We add „P.S“. at the end of a letter when we want to write something more.

Ex: P.S. Best wishes to your family.

vs (versus)

This abbreviation basically means „against“. It is used to oppose two different things in competition.

Ex:  The New York’s Knicks vs Chicago Bulls.

cf. (confer)

You can normally see this in a book when the author wants to mention another source that tells about something. It means “refer to…“ or “compare“

Ex: Summer is a great time for outdoor activities (cf. John Smith for various types of summer pastimes).

etc. (et cetera)

This Latin abbreviation is used at the end of a list to show that there are more things included in the list but you don’t want to mention them.

Ex: We often see snails, bugs, birds, etc. in our garden.

et al (et alia)

“et al” usually comes right after a name and it means “and others.” It is used when there are too many names to list, but you still want to give credit to everybody.

Ex:   The method is explained in the work of Johnson et al.

 

Expressions with “Keep”

’Keep’ is one of the most common verbs in English, and it forms lots of phrasal verbs, collocations and idioms. Here are some of them to help you express yourselves more naturally:

Keep up the good work!

Our dog buried my wallet somewhere around here. Keep on digging!

If you want to sell more, you have to keep the prices low.

They usually keep things formal in that company.

We like to keep our home clean and tidy.

Could you keep the volume down? The baby is sleeping.

Coffee keeps me awake.

The only way for Tim to get a job is to keep trying.

Keep on driving! We’ll find our way.

Keep quiet! We’re in hospital.

You have to keep him from drinking alcohol.

We work hard to keep our home safe.

Keep off the grass!

We’re not sure what time we’re leaving but we’ll keep you informed.

Keep me updated about the changes in your schedule.

If we keep to the agenda, the meeting will be over in no time.

Everyone should try and keep up with the news in the world.

Peter is not very sociable. He prefers to keep himself for himself.

Sam’s parents keep him from enrolling a master degree because they think he should get a job.

It wasn’t easy to learn to ski but I kept at it and now I can ski.

Personal and Impersonal Passive

Look at this sentence:

They say he is a good man.

Now look at its impersonal passive construction:

It is said that he is a good man.

We can state the same using a personal passive construction:

He is said to be a good man.

You can use these structures with a number of other verbs like: believed, expected, known, thought, etc. 

It is believed that the weather will change soon.

They are expected to come at noon.

 The strike is expected to end soon.

It is known that Columbus discovered America.

It is thought that the thieves got in through the window.

 

Exercises:

Make personal and impersonal passive constructions with this sentences:

  1. The company makes a lot of profit.
  2. The town was hit by an earthquake.
  3. John knows Maths well.
  4. Brenda speaks three languages.
  5. He is very considerate.

 

(Answer key: 1) It is said that the company makes a lot of profit / The company is said to make a lot of profit. 2) It was reported that the town was hit by an earthquake / The town was reported to be hit by an earthquake. 3) It is thought that John knows Maths well / John is thought to know Maths well. 4) It is known that Brenda speaks three languages / Brenda is known to speak three languages 5) It is believed that he’s very considerate / He is believed to be very considerate)