-ED and -ING forms of adjectives

We sometimes use verbs ending in –ed and –ing as adjectives:

I like painted furniture.

Do you like smoked meat?

The police are looking for a missing person.

Some people say Leonardo da Vinci invented first flying machine.

Many –ed and –ing adjectives describe feelings, but we use them in different ways. We use:

  • -ed adjectives to describe how we feel:

I’m confused.

The students are interested.

  • -ing adjectives to describe the thing that causes our feelings:

The rules are confusing.

It’s an interesting lesson.

We often use –ing adjectives to ask about or give an opinion about something:

Do you think horror films are frightening? (= or they frighten you?)

My cousin is really boring. (= He makes me feel bored)

We don’t use –ing adjectives to talk about how we feel;

Tell me more about the course.  I am very interesting.   I am very interested.



  1. I am doing the same thing every day. My job is so ________________.
  2. I have nothing to do. I am ______________.
  3. I don’t understand this exercise. I am so _______________.
  4. The rules are rather __________. I don’t understand them.
  5. My trip has been canceled. I am so _________________.
  6. The play of our team was very bad. It was so ______________.

Answers: 1. boring, 2. bored, 3. confused, 4. confusing, 5. disappointed, 6. disappointing

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